Type 2 Diabetes Causes
The exact cause of type 2 diabetes remains unknown. What is know is that there is hereditary element in the development of diabetes (diabetes tends to run in families). This is not to say that everyone who has diabetes is likely to have other family member affected. Many diabetic patients don’t have any other affected family member.
Type 2 diabetes is associated with over-nutrition, obesity, urbanization and a sedentary lifestyle. The body is able to produce insulin but not enough for what is actually requires. Furthermore, it has been found that insulin in diabetic patients with Type 2 diabetes appears to be less effective that in normal person (that is, they are less responsive or ”sensitive” to insulin). The incidence of Type 2 diabetes is increasing in our urban society.
Diabetes can also result from diseases that destroy the pancreas (inflammation or pancreatitis of the pancreas) or from surgery to remove the pancreas. There are also other rare types of diabetes (for example that which results from malnutrition)
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What seems to cause Type 2 diabetes
The CAUSE. Researchers do not know what causes Type 2 diabetes.They have determined, however, that there is no single cause. Instead, the condition seems to be brought on by a number of factors which interact in complex ways and vary from person to person:
Reduced Number of Beta Cells
- One way to remedy the “delayedaction” situation is for the beta cells to produce more insulin. In theory, the additional insulin would then take care of the excess sugar that built up during the delay. Unfortunately, There are type 2 diabetics who have less beta cells than usual. Although their beta cells can produce insulin, there is not sufficient insulin to manage the extra blood glucose caused by the delay.
Defect in the Beta Cells
- Â In the pancreas of a non-diabetic, the correct amount of insulin is released at the appropriate rate by the beta cells. The increase in blood glucose is fast after each meal and after the glucose has been taken up to cater for the immediate need of the body, the remainder is converted to glycogen, and this is stored in the body. The rate insulin is sent into the bloodstream is then lowered, and helps to keep levels of blood glucose at 70 - 140 mg/dL which is the range considered normal. The beta cells of people with Type 2 diabetes are often able to secrete large amounts of insulin into the bloodstream, but for some reason these cells can’t respond immediately to the rising levels of glucose. This results in a delay in the release of insulin, and by the time the beta cells get around to the job, high levels of sugar may already have built up in the blood.
Obesity and Lifestyle
- It is estimated that 80 – 90 % of those with Type 2 diabetes and who have a family history of diabetes are overweight. Lifestyle habits that can promote weight gain can increase one’s risk for developing diabetes. Having extra body fat, especially around the abdominal area can sometimes lead to insulin resistance. This can make it harder for the body to control its blood glucose level
- The environmental one lives in appears to play a role in developing Types 2 diabetes. Countries and cultures that adopt a “western lifestyle” are experiencing increasing rates of diabetes. This is thought to be due to eating a high fat, lower complex carbohydrate diet, having a lower activity level and obesity.
Age and Genetics
- As people age, their risk level for diabetes increases. Having a family history of diabetes also seems to play a role in developing Type 2 diabetes. Experts know that people with Hispanic, Asian, African, Native American and Pacific Island backgrounds are at higher risk for developing Type 2 diabetes that those of Caucasian background. However, the link between HLA genes and type 2 diabetes is not clear as it’s with Type 2 diabetes. So far, it appears that there may be different genes that promote Type 2 diabetes that Type 1 diabetes. A biochemical defect may also play a role.